About Diabetes :

Diabetes is not a disease but a disorder of metabolism, affecting 422 million people worldwide, where the glucose concentration remains high in the blood stream. The problem in people with diabetes is that either they don't produce enough insulin, or the insulin they produce doesn't work properly, or their cells don’t respond properly to insulin (insulin resistance). The net result is that glucose isn’t cleared from their blood stream and they have high blood glucose levels which the body tries to clear by various compensatory methods, such as increased urination.

Diabetes Types & its Management :

There are two types of DIABETES
Type 1. Diabetes due to absence of Insulin
Type 2. Diabetes due to ineffective insulin

Both types of diabetes have different treatment options. In general population, Type 2 diabetes is more prevalent than Type 1. Almost 90-95% of the patients have Type 2 diabetes which results from ineffective insulin. Type 1 diabetes, accounts for 5-10% of all diabetes patients. The objective of treatment in Type 1 is to give adequate insulin, in right intervals so that the patient will not have "Hypo" i.e. insufficient or "Hyper" i.e. excess "Glycemia” or sugar levels. This requires frequent monitoring of blood sugar levels and require higher frequency of medical supervision , and intervention. In case of Type 2 diabetes, the objective of treatment is to make insulin more effective and reduce the consumption of unwanted food. Reductions in quantity of food or modifications in the type of food taken, increase in physical, avoiding sedentary lifestyles and intake of medicines to improve the insulin action are some the measures which can be undertaken for management of Type 2 diabetes. Periodic monitoring of blood sugar and supervision is essential in managing and controlling this condition.

Reference-American Diabetes Association.(2009).Diagnosis and classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care, 32(Suppl),S62-s67.
http://doi.org/10.2337/dc09/dc09-S062
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2613584/